Question; Explain the scope of political science?
Or "What are the benefits of studying Political Science?" Explain it.
Or "Describe the field of Political Science.
Or "Explain the utility of the study of Political Science.
Or" Discuss the subject area of Political Science.
OR "State the importance of the study of Political Science.
Or" What are the subject areas of Political Science? discuss
Or" explain the scope of political science
Or"Describing the field of Political Science, explain the importance of Political Science.
Area of Political Science /or Scope of Political Science
The field of study of politics is very wide, and its determination is also very difficult because there is hardly any aspect of the individual and society which is not connected with the political unit.
In the definition of political science, there are two types of perspectives in the context of the field of political science--
(a) Traditional approach and
(b) Modern or behavioural approach.
Under the traditional approach, the guidelines of Garner, Getill, Gilchrist, Blunsley, etc., can be included. All these scholars keep the formal study of the state, government, and other similar political institutions under the field of political science.
Gilchrist and Frederick Pollock made two divisions of political science - theoretical and practical.
Gilchrist's view is that the basic problems of the state are studied under theoretical politics. It does not include studying what resources a state uses to achieve its goals.
On the contrary, the actual functioning of government and various political life institutions are studied under Behavioural politics.
According to Sir Frederick Pollock, In Theoretical politics, the study of the state, government, and law-making comes. Under practical politics, the various forms or types of governments, governments' operations, administration, diplomacy, war, peace, international behaviour, problems, etc., are studied.
The behavioural approach does not consider the study area of political science limited to the study of state and government but studies man's behaviour in aggregate. Behaviourists believe that the field of study of political science is not limited to the political behaviour of man. This is very broad because the political activities of man are affected by all the activities of social, economic, religious, moral, etc., of his life. The study of the subject area of Political Science includes the following studies--
1. Study of Humans
Political science is concerned with the study of humans. Humans are social creatures, and they cannot keep themselves separate from the state. For this reason, Aristotle believes that by living in the state or society, man can be self-dependent. Humans are the basis of the mobility of the state. All the activities of the state are centred around humans. The state completes every need of human development and gives them rights and the pleasure of freedom. The traditional approach places the political life of humans in political science, while the pragmatic approach includes the whole life of humans in it.
2. Study of State's Past, Present, and Future
The state is the central subject of political science; the government embodies it. The necessities of life can be fulfilled only through the state; this is why the state is needed. But it should be known that the objective of political life is not fulfilling the needs of daily life. As Aristotle wrote, "The state is born to satisfy the necessities of daily life, but it continues to exist for a good life." In this form, the state is an indispensable institution for human beings.
Gatil writes, "Political science is the historical exploration of the past form of the state, the analytical interpretation of its present form, and the political analysis of its ideal form."
The past of the state is studied first in political science. This helps us understand the state's present form and its various institutions and form the basis of their improvement and development in the future.
Political science also studies the present form of the state. This part of political science is most significant because everyone is effectively connected with the state. In the present context, under the study of the state, we study political institutions in the same way they function. We study the functions of the state and its nature based on practical conclusions. We also study political parties and interest groups, concepts of liberty and equality and the relationship between them, power and individual liberty, the development of the state as a member of the international community, etc. Not only this, in the field of political science, we also study how the state can be in the coming times or how it should be in its ideal form.
3. Study of Government
Government is studied under traditional political science. The government is an integral part of the state; the state is an intangible institution, while the government is its embodiment.
According to Crosse, “Government is the state, and only in government can the state gain perfection; in fact, the study of the state is incomplete without government.”
The government exercises the liberation of the state. The government gives a behavioral shape to the wishes and aspirations of the state. Various forms of government are studied in political science.
Various organs of government (legislative, administrative, and judiciary) are also studied in this. Leacock called political science the study of government.
4. Study of Governance Management
Despite being a part of political science, public administration has become a separate subject today, but its basics are still studied under political science. The study of the recruitment, training, and advancement of civilian employees, their relationship with the people's representatives, and making the administration very efficient, public interest, and accountable is done in Political Science.
5. Study of Political Theories
It includes the study of the origin, development, organisation, nature, purpose, and functions of the state. Thus political science is mainly concerned with the target institutions and processes of the political party. Based on this, an attempt is made to lay down general rules.
6. Study of International Relations
In the present era, the increasing speed of international expansion has made it clear that the whole world is becoming united; as a result, the importance of international relations is increasing. Science has given the inspiration to establish relations among the nations of the world by conquering distance and time. Therefore, the study of international politics, international law, international organisation, etc., has become the subject area of political science.
7. Study of Political Parties and Pressure Groups
Political parties and pressure groups are the institutions through which political life gets its momentum. Nowadays, the study of political parties and pressure groups are more important than the study of the constitution and formal organisation of governance. This type of study relates political life to reality.
The above description proves that the study area of Political Science is very broad. All those activities of humans with the state are studied, which are related to the state or government. Thus, political science considers the relationship between humans-humans and humans- the state. It also studies the various components of government, their organisation, the division of governance among them, and national and international problems.
Importance of studying political science
Today's era is social and materialistic. In this era, the importance and area of the state have increased a lot. Today the state affects every aspect of human life. In ancient times, only the king-maharaja and the princes knew about the state and political matters, but today is the era of democracy, socialism, and the public welfare state. In this era, people are related to the state and politics, so the study of political science is necessary for every person. Without studying political science, a person cannot understand his surroundings. Nowadays, politics dominates every aspect of human life. Politics influence every part of our life. The modern state regulates and controls human life, and political science is the science of such study. In brief, the following are the importance of the study of Political Science--
1. Knowledge of Human Rights and Duties
Political science provides the knowledge of human rights and duties to the person and motivates him to live as the best unit of the state or society. Political science tries to establish the principles of cooperation instead of conflict by establishing good relations among citizens. In this way, the study of political science is important for both the citizen and the society (state).
2. Mastery in Statecraft
Political science gives knowledge of the constitution and political activities. It enables a person to participate in governance and politics. If the citizens of a country do not know the state-art policies, then that country cannot run successfully.
3. Helpful in the study of national and constitutional history
The national and constitutional history of different nations is also studied through political science. Based on this type of study, the students of Political Science can learn about the glorious past of their country and the successes and failures achieved.
4. Becoming a Best Citizen:
Knowledge of politics makes person an ideal citizen. It trains the person for social life. Its study gives the education of the best citizenship.
5. Origin of Consciousness
Through the study of political science, man becomes aware of his rights and duties. Even living in the society in which we live, we cannot make any progress unless we have consciousness. It is necessary to study the state and political society to study the state. In ancient times, these studies were not found; they are studied in modern times.
6. Knowledge and Remedy of International Problems
Due to the rapid progress of science and the invention of new means of communication, different countries have become closer. In such a situation, the study of different states' mutual relations and problems has become important. Ideologies like imperialism, capitalism, communism, disarmament, and world peace and information about international institutions like the United Nations come under international relations and management, which are important in political science. Based on this type of information, a person can study foreign policy and its international problems.
7. Knowledge of State and Government
It is only through the study of political science that information about the different ideologies prevailing and their merits and demerits regarding the purpose, organisation, area, and type of governance and system of a state is known. Based on this information, we can become such enlightened and aware critics of our country's political system that we can guide the state in the right direction.
Finally, we can say that the study of Political Science is very important. In the present environment, the concept of the welfare state, the democratic governance system, and the process of increasing globalisation have made this study more important. In this regard, Robert A. Huddle says that "Politics has become an indispensable element of human existence today." Everyone is associated by any means, time, and political system."
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