9/01/2022

Relation of political science with other social sciences

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Question; What is the relation of political science with other major social sciences?

Or "Political science is related to psychology and history; discuss it."

Or" What is the relation of Political Science with other subjects?  Discuss.

Or "Describe the relationship of Political Science with Psychology, History, Geography, and Economics.

Or "Describe the relationship of Political Science with Economics.

Or "Describe the relationship of Political Science with Psychology.

Or "State the relationship between Political Science and Geology.

Or "Describe the relationship between Political Science and History.

Or" Discuss the relationship between political science and geography.

Or "State the relationship between political science and economics.

Or "What is the relation of Political Science with various social sciences?" Discuss.

Answer--

Relation of Political Science with Other Social Sciences

The relationship between different social sciences has been discussed since ancient times, but the behaviourist movement that emerged after the First World War started a new revolution in these relations. The relationship between various social sciences is being discussed because man's social life is such a bound unit that cannot be separated from the various aspects of life. At present, much importance is being given to the method of interdisciplinary study under political science. Due to the importance given to this method, some new branches of knowledge have emerged, such as political psychology, political economics, political sociology, etc.

A few years ago, the 'Social Science Research Council' was formed by the scholars of America. This council has started studying all the social sciences by binding them as a single unit. As a result of this process, the relation of political science with other social sciences has become more intimate.

Relationship between Political Science and Economics

There is a very close relationship between political science and economics. Ancient writers consider economics to be a branch of political science. Greek thinkers called it 'political economics' or political economy. The famous book 'Arthashastra' by Chanakya Kautilya is the best book on politics. Similarly, in Aristotle's second article on 'Politics and Locke' on civil administration, those subjects have been explained and considered the subject matter of economics.

According to Shri Gurumukh Nihasingh, "In the early days, economics was considered a branch of political science, and the subject of its study was to get revenue for the state. It was called 'political economics' rather than 'domestic economics.''

Marxists claim that economic elements determine social and political institutions; economic goals give pace and form to our lives. Although this statement is not completely acceptable because there are many other driving forces in life apart from  'money,' no one can object to believing that economic conditions have a very profound effect on life.

Political and economic conditions are closely related to each other, and they form a close relationship between political science and economics. Political life cannot be happy when the economic system is weakened. Political democracy is proving to be futile in the absence of economic democracy. Economic growth and prosperity are the keys to political development. Economic discontent gives rise to political revolutions. Social and political justice cannot be established without economic justice.

Although political science and economics have been considered separate subjects in modern times, political science and economics are related to each other. Both are related to humans. The main aim of both the scriptures is human welfare. The economic welfare of human beings is impossible in conditions of unrest and anarchy; therefore, it is an essential duty of the state to establish peace and order.

Getill says, "Economic conditions influence the organisation, development, and activities of the state, and in response, states change economic conditions by their laws."

Garner's statement is meaningful and close to reality, "The principle of total government administration is economic."

The political science of economics

1. Rise and Development of State Institutions

This has happened as a result of economic conditions. The establishment of huge states has been possible due to economic activities. According to Karl Marx, "Economic conditions determine the nature of social life in an era.

2. Political events result from economic activities

Many political events in the world have happened due to economic activities. In 1935, when the republican government of Spain tried to pass a law in the interest of the working class, the feudal, clergy, and military class dissolved the republican government. In 1922, due to the deplorable economic condition of Italy, a dictatorship was established. The rise of Hitler and the start of World War II resulted from a severe economic recession in 1930.

3. The policy of the state depends on the economic conditions themselves

Impact of Economics on Political Science

Economics is an independent socio-discipline, but it has a close relationship with political science. The main aim of both the scriptures is human welfare. The economic well-being of human beings is impossible in conditions of unrest and anarchy. Therefore, establishing peace and order is an essential duty of the state.

The development of the state has happened only as a result of economic conditions. The establishment of huge national states has been possible only because of economic activities. Karl Marx believed that economic conditions determine the nature of the entire social life in an era.

difference between political science and economics

Despite the close relationship between Political Science and Economics, there are fundamental differences, which are as follows--

1. Study-Subject Differences

Economics is concerned with the economic life of man, whereas Political Science is concerned with the political life of man. Eiber Brown has written, "Economics is concerned with commodities whereas Political Science is concerned with man, one with prices, the other with a real man."

2. Difference in Purpose

Economics studies the individual in the context of wealth. For him, only the person is useful who is economically beneficial, whereas Political Science respects the person for being a human being. For this reason, sometimes this statement is often used in satire, "An economist knows the price of everything, but he does not know the real value of anything."

3. Difference in Nature

Economics is a descriptive subject, whereas Political Science is a normative subject. Political science considers every problem from the point of view of moral values ​​, whereas economics considers it only from an economic point of view.

4. Difference in field of vision

The scope of political science is broader than economics because it deals with the economic aspect of social life and other aspects like cultural, political, religious, moral, etc. Its form is idealistic, reflective, and practical in all respects, whereas in economics, only economic problems are considered broadly, and its nature is practical and theoretical only.

5. Difference Between demonstrable and Norms

Political science is verifiable, and economics is the Norm. Good economic conditions are essential for a well-organised and successful political system. A person can become a good citizen if he is financially prosperous. In short, economic conditions reinforce the foundation of political democracy.

Relationship between Political Science and Sociology

Sociology is called the father of other social sciences. It is a social science in which all the basic subjects of social life are studied, related to the gradual development of human beings. It studies the origin of society, its development, social customs, etc. It includes all aspects of political, social, economic, religious, etc. Therefore it can be said that sociology is the father of all social sciences.

Dependence of Political Science on Sociology

Political Science and Sociology are complementary to each other. It is clear as follows--

1. sociological elements bind Political Science

Sociology deals with the racial, caste, religious and political aspects of human life, so political science cannot ignore sociology. The state or government has no existence apart from sociology. Sociology states that the development of state institutions results from some natural tendencies of human beings. These tendencies have got their strength mainly from blood relations, unity of religious beliefs, economic needs, and war and victory. The study of sociology also shows that in the beginning, the form of the states was very simple, but gradually their form and scope of work kept on increasing. Adam Smith and Karl Marx made the basis of their study of social structure. The study of political institutions in the modern era by Richard Tawny, Max Weber (1864–1920), Roberto Michels (1876–1936), Wilfredo Pareto (1848–1923), and Emile Durkheim (1858–1919), Mosca, Karlmannheim Lasvale and David Easton, The subject matter of sociology, has been successfully used for He has explained in detail, “What is the relation of religion with capitalism, how does working-class influence politics, how power is related to politics and how the structure of a society affects voting. To understand the behaviour, we have to know mainly these problems arising from urbanisation, educated unemployment, increase in the labour force, and facilities related to water, electricity, health, education, etc. Similarly, rural politics should be treated with caste and religious differences, and Agriculture can be better understood regarding land ownership.

2. Role of Sociology in bringing about social balance and harmony

The basis of sociology helps in understanding social conflicts. As a result, the state can set such policies, which will help in bringing social justice and balance, and harmony can be established in society. In all the countries, especially in India, where people of different religions and castes reside, a big question arises before politicians can strengthen national unity. From this point of view, the data presented by sociologists can guide us enough.

3. Role of Sociology in Making Public Decisions Effective

One of the functions of political science is to reach public decisions. These decisions can be effective only when the social motivations of the groups concerned are taken into account. It is necessary to know the people's values, traditions, attitudes, dispositions, beliefs, and prejudices to determine the possible response to any social action and its chances of success. Social science proves particularly helpful in this endeavor. If seen, today's political science is ready to understand informal organizations and processes beyond the study of formal processes and institutions. For this, it becomes necessary to take the help of social science.

4. Political Analysis and Impact of Political Institutions on Sociology

Political analysis and the study of various political institutions have helped sociology a lot. For example, in the context of society, the state has continuously controlled the methods of sociological analysis. Sociologists recognize governance as the highest social institution because governance can direct society and regulate social behavior. Nowadays, the scope of work of the state has become very wide. The state regulates marriage, property, and the family system, which are closely related to sociology. For example- Government policies regarding family planning and dowry have affected the Indian family and marriage system to a great extent.

Difference between sociology and political science

Undoubtedly, political and social science has emerged in political science and sociology, which has made an unprecedented contribution to political science in terms of conceptual frameworks in the form of the political system, political development, political modernization, and political culture.

But there are also some important differences between political science and social science which need to be considered.

Political science and sociology are closely related, but despite this, the following differences are found in them in some ways--

1. Area wise

There are many dissimilarities in the scope and problems of both the sciences. The field of sociology is much broader than that of political science. Political science studies the political life of the individual, institutions like the state, and governance. Still, in sociology, all the work of human business is covered, along with its studies of all the social institutions like family, religion and trade unions, etc. . On this basis, Gilchrist has considered sociology a broad, political science a specific discipline.

2. From the point of view of the study material

Political science is concerned only with organized communities and individuals; talk about sociology, which deals with both organized and unorganized types of communities and individuals. Apart from this, Political Science studies only the conscious functioning of human beings, whereas Sociology also studies the unconscious functioning of human beings.

3. From an Objective point of view

Sociology is a 'descriptive science,' but political science is also an 'ideological science.' Sociology only studies 'what has happened and 'what is happening and what should happen in the future; sociology has nothing to do with it. But Political Science is also concerned with 'what should be,' aiming to attain an ideal system.

The difference between political science and sociology is very well explained by Warker, "Political science studies only political theory," which is under a single government united by a constitution. Sociology studies all communities. Political science accepts as a theory that man is a political animal; it does not try to explain how he became a political animal like sociology.

The relationship between political science and history

There is a close relationship between political science and history. Explaining this intimacy, Prof. Seeley wrote, "History is a failure without Political Science, and Political Science without History has no roots."

Freeman Says, "History is nothing but the past politics, and politics is nothing but the present history."

According to Burgess, "If the two scriptures are separated, then one will be crippled if not dead, and the other will remain as mere Akash Kusum.

Lord Acton States, "Political science is that science stored like gold grains in the river of history."

How does political science depend on history?

History is necessary and useful for the study of Political Science. History is helpful for the study of Political Science in the following ways--

1. Provides History Study Material for Political Science

History provides study material for Political Science. With the help of History, we can get study material for comparison and discussion of Political Science. We get a lot of information about the origin of political ideas and institutions through History. The study of Political Science would not be possible without History.

2. History is the laboratory of Political Science

History is the laboratory of political science. We get the details of the results and effects of various actions in the political field in history.

 Experiments were done in the past to help solve present problems and make the future beautiful.

In the words of Wilson, "History is the detailed laboratory of political science by which mistakes can be avoided from being repeated."

History's dependence on political science

Not only does political science depend on history, but also history depends on political science.

1. Political events provide the basic material for the history

History is obliged to political science, because in the absence of proper study of the results of political events and activities, the knowledge of history is incomplete. Seele believes, "If political events are removed, history will remain mere literature."

2. Political ideologies greatly influence history

Political ideologies influence history. The ideas of liberty, equality, and fraternity became the basis for the destruction of monarchy and democracy. The ideas of Rousseau played an important role in the history of France, Marxism for the Soviet Union, and Gandhian ideology played an important role in the history of India.

difference between political science and history

Following are the differences between Political Science and History--

1. Difference in Interpretation Method

History is descriptive, which only gives a systematic description of events according to the time cycle; it does not try to find ideals. In contrast, political science is deliberative, which uses the material provided by history to search for general rules and principles.

2. Difference by Region

Political science studies only political life and political institutions in humans, but history studies various aspects of human life; political science studies the past, present, and future, but history only studies the past.

3. Based on the task

Historians cannot give their decision regarding any stream, but the discoverer of political science can do so.

4. Based on Purpose

There are also differences between the two social sciences in terms of purpose. The history discusses the origin and development of the state. Political science is mainly concerned with what should be the purpose and nature of the state. The scope of history is wide.

Relationship between Political Science and Psychology

Psychology is the science of the human mind and behaviour, with the help of which human motivations and special actions are accounted for. Therefore, psychoanalytic methods are used to understand human beings. It is believed that special works are accomplished due to the special working style of the human mind. You can understand a person socially and culturally by knowing his/her psychologically.

Political Science is like social science, which is related to the study of humans. The effect of mental activities on political institutions is quite natural. This is why there is a close relationship between Political Science and Psychology.

It is known that Machiavelli first propounded the importance of psychology based on political activities, and Hobbes gave it a scientific form. Hobbes is considered the father of the psychological approach to politics. Prominent among the French and English writers who placed the greatest emphasis on psychodynamic political analysis are Tarde, Durkheim, Lebon, Graham Wallas, and MacDougall. Graham Wallas has expressed the growing influence of psychology in political science in his famous book 'Bhnaund Danjantam Pad Chasapjapbe.' He has clarified that man in his political behaviour is not only motivated by conscience; emotions and impulses also influence him.

Freud and other psychologists have tried to prove that the basis of human behaviour is the subconscious tendencies of his mind. The origin of these tendencies is his suppressed desires. According to Freud, man does not generally act based on reason or intellectual analysis. The mind is the slave of subconscious impulses. If this is true, then it will be necessary for the politics student to understand these subconscious motivations and attitudes. Without understanding these, he can neither make a realistic analysis of political life nor can he draw any conclusions about his ideals.

Similarly, Totor, in his book (Peace and Humanity during War) has explained how national leaders can study the sentiments of the people and benefit from them both in peace and war. In his book 'Lokmat,' Lippmann analyses the general public's opinion, the people's dogma, and their views. Gunnar Myrdal's famous book 'The American Dilemma' explains the attitude of the people of America very well.

The utility of psychology for political science can be explained as follows--

1. It is worth mentioning that the basis of different governance systems in different countries is the attitude of the people and society. The prominent French journalist Boutami, while discussing the attitude of the people of England and America in his two great works, has told that the main reason for the main differences between the political institutions of these two countries is the attitude of the people. Despite being a democratic country, England is maintaining the existence of the emperor to date; at its core is the spirit and attitude of the British. Although the office of the monarch has become somewhat meaningless and immaterial there, the people of England have such a belief that as long as the king or queen is present in Buckingham Palace, only then they can sleep in peace. Thus there is not so much the practical utility of the royal office as the sentiment of the common man behind it.

2. The state should study society's attitude properly while deciding on any new policy or making any new law; otherwise, the public will not welcome that policy or law. In the modern era, the importance of public opinion has increased tremendously. The basis of democracy is 'public opinion,' Now, different types of propaganda are being used by different political parties to create public opinion. Pro. In the words of Getel, "The nature of political parties has today become psychological to a considerable extent."

3. Without understanding the general public's behaviour and the agitated crowd's sentiments, no person can become a successful politician.

For example, after the First World War, there was great despair and dissatisfaction among the people of Germany due to the defeat, which Hitler recognized and took advantage of. To instil enthusiasm, courage, and military spirit among the masses, Hitler and his companions used to say, "Man should be as fearless and bloody as a lion. A true German thinks not with his intellect but with his blood."

In this way, the main reason for the success of Mahatma Gandhi was also to study the attitude of the people and work accordingly. Mahatma Gandhi knew that India was a religious country. They took shelter in religious symbols – prayer, fasting, cow protection, celibacy, satyagraha, etc. Gandhiji assumed the dress of an ordinary farmer and took his message from village to village. Like Mazzini, the great patriot of Italy, Gandhiji also resorted to spiritualism and gave the form of 'religion' and 'worship' to patriotism.

It is clear from the above description that no politician can neglect the study of psychology. Lord Bryce has even said that "Psychology is the basis of political science."

Relationship between Political Science and Geography

We know that among the building elements of the state, the land is also an important fact because the subjects of the study of geography are also land, that is, earth, water, and air, so geography and political science are closely related to each other.

Rousseau of France stated that the relationship between the nature of climate and the forms of governance could be observed. On this basis, he concluded that warmer climates favor authoritarianism. Cold climates encourage vandalism, and climates of a moderate nature are conducive to good policy. Montesquieu said that only the people living in cold-climate could understand the meaning of freedom. Bakil said that people do not form political institutions of their own free will, but this is due to material consequences. The roaming tribes made their permanent place surrounded by mountains and on the banks of rivers or where the climate was very good.

Political unity could not be established in ancient Greece due to geographical distance. The same thing can now be said about Indonesia or the Philippines. The countries of Central Asia of Africa could not emerge due to their geographical conditions; if the African countries are very hot, then the countries of West Asia lack water and vegetation. Economic prosperity cannot come in such countries. The success of direct democracy in Switzerland is its geographical location. If countries like Bhutan and Nepal are so behind politically, then the reason for this is also their lack of natural resources.

it is necessary to have sufficient knowledge of the land people there to understand the political problems and life of the society of any country. Geology affects the home policy of the nation; its foreign policy also remains untouched by its influence. Today America and Russia are the greatest powers globally; the reason for this is their geography. Due to the abundance of natural wealth and minerals, their national power has increased tremendously. Today, the countries of West Asia have become the centre of international politics due to their geographical location, the abundance of minerals, and huge oil reserves.

Difference between political science and geography

Despite the proximity between geography and political science, there are the following differences between the two disciplines--

1. With a view to certainty

There is an absolute certainty in the land. There is a lot of uncertainty in political science.

2. From the point of view of nature

Geology is a real science as well as ideological. Due to the development of means of transport and communication, the progress of science has stopped the land from becoming a determining element of politics.

3. From the point of view of the study material

Earth, climate, etc. are studied in Geology. These materials are physical; political science studies the human institution called the state.

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