9/01/2022

Power; Types/Classification, Nature, and Sources

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Power types or classifications

Following are the types of power--

1. Physical Power 

 Physical Power  is used in two contexts. First, physical Power  is used concerning a person, then it refers to physical force. When physical Power  is used in a social or national context, it refers to military power. Today military power is divided into many parts and categories.

2. Psychological Power

Charles Shilcher wrote, "Psychological power consists of such symbolic indicators that affect the mind and emotions of individuals. It is a way of controlling people through propaganda. This power is used very cleverly." Through this power, one has to influence others.

3. Economic power

The practical nature of power is economic. Power automatically starts getting affected by economic means. Today many nations are economically dependent on other nations, the countries which provide financial assistance to any other countries; their aim is that those countries remain in their sphere of influence. Many countries devalue their money due to the economic pressure of other countries; the dependence on trade is also the reason for economic pressure.

other types of power

Different thinkers also have different views regarding the types of power. The classification of some prominent scholars concerning power is being presented here--

Types of Shakti according to Hindu scriptures

(a) lateral power

(b) Divine power.

Classification of power by beer

Beer has told seven types of power--

(a) property

(b) physical force

(c) social status

(d) education

(e) moral character

(f) Attraction of personality

(i) Art of Management.

Dahl's classification of power

Dahl has given two forms of power--

(a) Harassment

The power which is not justified is called repression(Harassment).

(b) power

The power which is justified is called power.

Edward Mills' Classification of Power

(a) There are three forms of power based on behavior change-

1. force, 2. dominance, and 3. deceit.

(b) Justified Grounds

Max Weber's Power Classification

According to Weber, there are three types of power-

(a) legal and statutory

(b) traditional

(c) charismatic power

Beersted's classification of power

Birstead has classified power on several grounds--

1. Visual Power

When Shakti is used in its manifest form, then its form is of visible power.

2. Invisible Power

When power is used in an unmanifest form, its form is that of invisible or disguised power.

3. Suppressive Power

When power is used authoritatively, its form is oppressive.

4. repressive power

If the holder of power uses his power to favor the other party based on justification, then it is a form of repressive power.

5. Formal power

When power is exercised by issuing an order, direction, or instruction, its form is formal power.

6. Informal Power

When power is exercised without issuing any order, direction, or instruction, it is said to be an informal form of power.

7. Direct Power

When the holder of power exercises power itself, its form is direct power.

8. Indirect Power

If the holder exercises power through his subordinates or anyone else, then the form of power is indirect power.

9. Unilateral, Bilateral, and Multilateral Powers

From the point of view of the direction of power migration, power can be unilateral or multilateral.

10. Concentrated, Decentralized and Pervasive Power

According to the domicile of power, its forms are concentrated, decentralized, and of pervasive power. Power concentrated at one place, distributed at many places, decentralized and indistinctly scattered power is called pervasive power.

11. Regional, National, and International Powers

Based on regionalism, the nature of power is regional, national, and international.

nature of power

The nature of power in political science has also been discussed. The nature of power can be explained in the following points--

1. power relational

Power is relative; that is, power refers to the relationships found between different groups or people. More than one power unit is required for the existence of power. That is, in the absence of others, the power of one person does not exist. Power, in practical terms, is the ability to make a person or other persons act according to themselves. Ultimately, for the power of the institution, the power of the individual, and the power of the group, it is necessary to have another institution, individual, and group, respectively."

2. Many Forms of Power

Power can be seen in political, military, economic, religious, ideas, public opinion, etc. These principles of power are mutually independent of each other; neither is considered to be subordinate to any other. However, they can be rivals or allies in the form of power.

3. Power real and potential

Power can be seen as real and potential power. First, the person holding power uses the power, then, it is called real power, and when the power is used for the attainment of political purpose, it is called potential power.

4. Power justified

Power is justified. In its absence, it is called force; force can be oppressive and tyrannical also. The justification of power is clear in its use in the public interest and defense; in this situation, it gets public consent, and as a result, a situation of stability comes.

5. Cumulative Nature of Grief

Power is cumulative. It strives to achieve certain goals. It is also the nature of Shakti that not only does it want to protect its present form and condition, but Shakti also wants its continuous growth and accumulation. It ends soon if the power stops its protection, growth, and accumulation effort. But when power tries to protect, grow and accumulate, then power itself becomes its end.

sources of power

Following are the sources of power--

1. Knowledge

Knowledge is the first source of power in the human field. In a simple sense, knowledge allows a person to coordinate and achieve his goals. Through knowledge, a person concentrates his qualities in such a way that he can become an instrument of power in completing such work. Management power will power, stamina power and the power to express oneself, reasoning power, etc., are important aspects of power. In the absence of these, the person may suffer.

2. Organization

There is an old saying that "organization is power." When members of a business form an organization, they become very powerful, such as the All India Mazdoor Sangh, All India Trade Union Congress, Mill Owners Association, All India Industry and Trade Union, etc. When many small and big states form a federation, that state becomes very powerful, such as the United States of America, South Africa, and India.

3. Power

When power comes into a person's hands, he becomes the Prime Minister, Central Minister, Chief Minister, or Minister in the state, etc... He becomes powerful because the government machinery comes into his hands. All of them come in a position to enjoy the state's power.

4. Use of Force

The more modern weapons and trained armies a country have, the more powerful it will be. If needed, that nation can achieve any objective by using force against its enemy. For example, Argentina occupied the Falkland Islands. Great Britain used power to recapture it and expelled Argentina from there. In Kargil, India used force to drive out Pakistani infiltrators.

5. Economic Resources

The person who has a lot of financial means wins the election and gets power. Similarly, the nation which has more economic resources, then that nation tries to influence others by giving financial aid; that is, it influences its foreign policy and economic policy. For example, America has a lot of economic resources, so it has established its dominance over many nations.

6. Control of Arms

The person with weapons establishes his influence on other unarmed people very quickly. The same is the case with nations. For example, America and Russia have unlimited stock of weapons. Therefore, they sell weapons worth billions of rupees every year and influence the policies of other countries. Therefore, it is essential to equip the army with the latest weapons to win the war.

7. Love and Influence

Love and influence are also important sources of power. Mahatma Gandhi's Satyagraha was based on love. By organising the countrymen with his love and influence, he created a wonderful power in them, through which he bowed down to the British rulers and brought independence to India.

8. Personal Attraction

Many leaders have such tremendous sacrifice and personal charm that millions of people bow before them and obey them. Such great attraction was in Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi, Subhash Chandra Bose, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Jayaprakash Narayan. For example, Shri Jai Prakash Narayan assembled various parties and established the Janata Party rule by defeating another Congress in the election of March 1977. This is called charm in personality.

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